Mughal Emperors of India
|Babur (1526- 1530 AD)||1. Founder of Mughal Empire.
2. Introduced gun powder in India.
3. Defeated Ibrahim Lodhi in the first Battle of Panipat (1527 AD).
4. Defeated Rana Sanga (Sangram Singh) at the Battle of Khanwa (1527 AD).
5. Defeated Medini Rai of Chanderi at the Battle of Chanderi (1528 AD).
6. Wrote Tuzuk-i-Babri in Turkish.
|Humayun (1526- 1556 AD)||1. Made Dinpanah at Delhi as second capital.
2. Fought two battles with Sher Shah Suri – Battle of Chausa (1539 AD); Battle of Kannauj (1540 AD) and was defeated.
3. Died due to fall from his library building’s stairs in 1556 AD.
4. His half-sister Gulbadan Begum wrote Humayun-Nama.
|Akbar (1566- 1565 AD)||1. Introduced Mansabdari System (Holder of rank) to organise the nobility and army.
2. Constructed Buland Darwaza.
3. Ralph Fitch was the first Englishman to visit Akbar’s Court in 1585.
4. Abolished Jaziyah (1564 AD); Believed in Sulh-i-kul (Peace to all).
5. Built Ibadat Khana (Hall of Prayer) at Fatehpur Sikri.
6. Issued “Degree of Infallibility ” in 1579.
7. Formulated religious order Din-i-Illahi (1582 AD)
8. Nine Gems of His Court (Navratnas):
A. Birbal (Mahesh Das)
B. Tansen (Tanna Mishra)
D. Maharaja Man Singh
E. Fakir Aziao din
F. Mirza Aziz Koka
G. Todar Mal
H. Abdur Rahim Khan-i-khanaa
I. Abul Fazl
Note: There is ambiguity on whether Mullah-do-Pyaza was one of the nine gems of Akbar. Some sources states that it was fictional character and some says advisor of Akbar.
|Jahangir (1605-1627 AD)||1. Executed Sikh fifth Guru, Guru Arjun Dev
2. Established Zanjir-i-Adal at Agra Fort for the seeker of royal justice.
3. Captain Hawkins and Sir Thomas Roe visited in his court.
4. Abdul Hassan, Ustad Mansur and Bishandas were the famous painters of his court.
|Shahjahan (1628-1658 AD)||
|Aurangzeb (1658-1707 AD)||1. Great scholar of Islamic theology and jurisprudence. He appointed a board of Ulema to compile authoritative passages from the standard of Hanafi Fiqh (Fatawa-ul- Alamgiri) for the guidance of the qazis known as ‘Fatawat-i- Alamgiri’ which was completed in AD 1672.
2. Important historical woks during his reign- Mutakhab-ul-Lubab by Khafi Khan; Alamgir Namah by Mirza Muhammad Kazim; Masir-i- Alamgiri by Muhammad Saqi; Fatuhat-i- Alamgiri by Iswar Das.
3. Executed ninth Sikh Guru, Guru Tegh Bhadur in 1675 AD.
4. Called as Darvesh or a Zinda Fakir
5. Forbade Sati pratha.
6. Built Biwi ka Makbara on the tomb of his queen Rabaud-Durani at Aurangabad; Moti Masjid in Red Fort at Delhi; Jami or Badshahi Mosque at Lahore.
|Bahadur Shah I (1707-1712 AD)||1. Popularly known as Shah Alam I and called Shahi-i- Bekhabar by Khafi Khan due to his appeasement parties by grants of title and rewards.
2. Ascended himself on the throne in 1707 after killing his two brothers, and defeating Kam Baksh in the Battle of Jajau. He was the last Mughal who enjoyed all the authority in real term.
3. Granted the right to collect Sardesh Mukhi of Deccan but not Chauth to the Marathas.
|Jahandar Shah (1712-1713 AD)||1. Gave the title of ‘Mirza Raja’ to Jai Singh of Malwa and ‘Maharaja’ to Ajit Singh of Marwar.
2. Encouraged Ijara System (the revenue farming/ contract farming and abolished Jazia).
3. First Mughal ruler who killed by Sayyid brothers- Abdulllah Khan and Hussain Ali (were the Hindustani Party leaders) in captivity.
|Farrukhsiyar (1713-1719 AD)||1. Known as ‘Sahid-i-Mazlum’ and son of Azim-us-Shah.
2. Assigned the duty of Deccan’s governor to Chin Quilch Khan who was better known ‘Nizam-ul-Mulk’, later who laid the foundation of independent state of Hyderabad
3. Peshwa Balaji Vishwanath visited in his court to take grant for collecting Chauth and Sardesh Mukhi on Maratha land.
|Muhammad Shah (1719- 1748 AD)||1. His name was Roshan Akhtar. Also called Rangila.
2. Maratha under Baji Rao for the first in Mughal history raided in Delhi
3. Nadir Shah of Persia invaded with the help of Sadat Khan who defeated Mughal army at the Battle of Karnal
|Ahmed Shah (1748- 1754 AD)||1. Ahmed Shah Abdali, the former general of Nadir Shah who invaded India five times during reign.
2. He was over throne by his wazir Imad-ul Malik and placed Alamgir II as ruler.
|Alamgir (1754- 1759 AD)||1. Called ‘Azizuddin’.
2. During his reign, the Battle of Plassey took place.
3. He was over throne by his wazir Imad-ul Malik and placed Shah Alam II as ruler.
|Shah Alam II (1759- 1806 AD)||1. Popularly known as ‘Ali Gauhar’ who was defeated in the Battle of Buxar in 1764 AD.
2. During his reign, the third Battle of Panipat took place.
3. Till 1772, he gave all his Diwani rights of Bihar, Bengal and Orissa but after 1772 with the help of Mahaji Scindia, he gets back all his Diwani rights.
4. First Mughal ruler who becomes East India Company Pensioner.
|Akbar II (1806- 1837 AD)||1. First Mughal ruler who was under the British protection.
2. During his tenure, Mughal Empire shrinks to Red Fort only.
|Bahadur Shah II (1837- 1857 AD)||1. He was the son of Akbar II and Rajput princess Lal Bai and also was the last ruler Mughal Empire.
2. During his reign, 1857 revolt took place; he was behaved to Rangoon as captive where he was died in 1862.
3. He was very good Urdu poet and his pen name was Zafar.