Brahmaputra River, Bengali Jamuna, Tibetan Tsangpo, Chinese (Pinyin) Yarlung Zangbo Jiang or (Wade-Giles romanization) Ya-lu-tsang-pu Chiang, major river of Central and South Asia. It flows some 1,800 miles (2,900 km) from its source in the Himalayas to its confluence with the Ganges (Ganga) River, after which the mingled waters of the two rivers empty into the Bay of Bengal.
Along its course the Brahmaputra passes through the TibetAutonomous Region of China, the Indian states of Arunachal Pradeshand Assam, and Bangladesh. For most of its length, the river serves as an important inland waterway. It is not, however, navigable between the mountains of Tibet and the plains of India. In its lower course the river is both a creator and a destroyer—depositing huge quantities of fertile alluvial soil but also causing disastrous and frequent floods.
The Brahmaputra River System
The world’s largest riverine island, Majuli Island is on the Brahmaputra river in the state of Assam. Important cities along Brahmaputra are Dibrugarh, Pasighat, Neamati, Tezpur and Guwahati.
Source of origin: The Brahmaputra river rises from Chemayundung glacier of the Kailash range near the Mansarovar Lake to the north of the Himalayas in the southwest Tibet region.
Confluence or Mouth: The Brahmaputra drains into the Bay of Bengal before forming a huge delta along with the Ganga.
Primary Tributaries of the Brahmaputra river
The Dhansiri River
It is the left-bank tributary of the Brahmaputra river.It rises from Liasang peak of Nagaland. It is the main river of the Golaghat district of Assam and the Dimapur district of Nagaland.
The Lohit River
It is an important left-bank tributary of the Brahmaputra river. It rises in the eastern Tibet region. The Lohit river flows through the Mishmi Hills. It joins the left-bank of the Brahmaputra at Sadia town in the state of Arunachal Pradesh. The main human habitations along the river are the cities of Lohit and Brahmakund. The catchment area of the Lohit river is covered extensively by thick forests. The newly constructed massive Dhola-Sadia bridge or the Bhupen Hazarika bridge spans the Lohit river.
The Dibang River
It is the left-bank tributary of the Brahmaputra river. It is one of the principal tributaries of the Brahmaputra river. It flows through the states of Arunachal Pradesh and Assam. It enters the plain area in Lower Dibang Valley district of Arunachal Pradesh. It enters Assam plains near Roing.
The Subansiri River
It is the right-bank tributary of the Brahmaputra river. It rises in the Tibet region in the Himalayas. It flows east and southeast through the Lower Subansiri district in Arunachal Pradesh, and then south to the Assam Valley, where it joins the right-bank of the Brahmaputra river in the Lakhimpur district of Assam. The Subansiri river is known as the Gold River by the locals. This river is famous all over the world for its gold dust.
The Kameng River
It is the right-bank tributary of the Brahmaputra river. It rises in the Tawang district in the eastern Himalayas. It forms the border between the East Kameng district and the West Kameng district of Arunachal Pradesh. In Assam, it flows through the Sonitpur district before joining the Brahmaputra at Tezpur. The Kameng River consists of two sections- the west consisting of the Akka hills and resided by the Akka tribes and the east consisting of the Dafla hills resided by the Daphla tribe. The Kaziranga National Park and the Pakkhui Wildlife Sanctuary are located near the Kameng river.
The Manas River
It is the right-bank tributary of the Brahmaputra river. It is a trans-boundary river in the Himalayan foothills between southern Bhutan and India. It is named after Manasa, the serpent god in the Hindu mythology. Royal Manas National Park of Bhutan and the Manas Wildlife Sanctuary are located in the Manas river valley. The Manas river flows through Bhutan and Assam in India before it joins the right-bank of the Brahmaputra river.
The Sankosh River
It is the right-bank tributary of the Brahmaputra river. It is a trans0boundary river and it flows through Bhutan, India and Bangladesh. It rises in the northern Bhutan region. It then flows through the region bordering the West Bengal district of Jalpaiguri and the districts of Dhubri and Kokrajhar in Assam. It then crosses over to Bangladesh where it is known by the name of Dudhkumar River. The river finally joins the right-bank of the Brahmaputra river near the Indo-Bangladesh border.
The Teesta River
It is the right-bank tributary of the Brahmaputra river. The Teesta rises from Zemu glacier in Kanchenjunga massif in Sikkim. The Teesta river drains the entire state of Sikkim and a part of Darjeeling Hills. It is known as the lifeline of Sikkim. The Teesta flows along a very deep gorge which divides north Bengal or the hills of Darjeeling into two parts-Tiger Hill range in the west and the Kalimpong Hill range in the east. It joins the Brahmaputra on its right-bank in Bangladesh.
Major River Valley Projects/Dams/Barrages associated with the Brahmaputra river system-
In the state of Arunachal Pradesh-
- Tawang Hydel Power Project
- Subansiri Lower Hydel Power Project
- Ranganadi Hydel Power Project
- Paki Hydel Power Project
- Papumpap Hydel Power Project
- Dhinkrong Hydel Power Project
- Upper Lohit Hydel Power Project
- Damway Hydel Power Project
- Kameng Hydel Power Project
In the state of Sikkim-
- Rangit Hydel Power Project
- Teesta Hydel Power Project
In the state of Assam-
- Kopli Hydel Power Project
In the state of Meghalaya-
- New Umtru Hydel Power Project
In the state of Nagaland-
- Doyang Hydel Power Project
In the state of Manipur-
- Loktak Hydel Power Project
- Tipaimukh Hydel Power Project
In the state of Mizoram-
- Tuibai Hydel Power Project
- Tuirial Hydel Power Project
- Dhaleshwari Hydel Power Project