Mahmud of Ghazni
1. Who was the father of Mahmud Ghaznavi?
2. During Mahmud expedition of invasion, who got first defeat in Peshawar?
3. Arrange the correct chronology of Mahmud invasion?
Ans: Invasion on Mathura & Kannauj
4. Who was the ruler of Gujarat when Mahmud invaded the Somnath temple?
5. Which invasion of Mahmud appreciated by Caliph and called Mahmud as Star of Islamic World?
Ans: Invasion on Somnath
6. Which invasion of Mahmud made furious on Pratihara’s ruler Rajyapala?
Ans: When Rajyapala surrenders to the Mahmud
7. Who was the ruler of Multan at the time of Mahmud invasion?
8. Who had given Mahmud an investiture to rule as an independent ruler?
Ans: Caliph of Baghdad named Qadirbillah
9. Who among the following ruler commit suicide after battle with Mahmud?
10. What was the religion of Mahmud of Ghazni?
Ans: Sunni Islam
11. Where was his house?
Ans: House of Sabuktigin
12. How many children did Mahmud of Ghazni have?
13. What was his wife’s name?
14. What was the name of his last child?
15. At what age did Mahmud of Ghazni die?
16. Who was his successor after his demise?
17. Mahmud of Ghazni was the most prominent ruler of what empire?
19. Aftermath of the battle: winner and loser
Obviously, the clear winner was Mahmud Ghazni. It is said that he always attacked India during the hot summer seasons and with the onset of monsoons, would go back to Ghazni, the reason being, he wanted to avoid the flooding rivers of Punjab, so that his forces won’t get trapped there. In all his 17 invasions, a number of dynasties were conquered by him.
- First invasion of Mahmud Ghazni in 1000 AD : Mahmud of Ghazni first invaded modern Afghanistan and Pakistan in 1000 AD. He defeated Hindu shahi kingdom ruler Jaya Pala, who killed himself later, and his son Ananda Pala became his successor.
- 1005 : Ghazni invaded Bhatia.
- 1006 : Ghazni invaded Multan. During this time, Ananda Pala attacked him.
- 1007 : Mahmud of Ghazni attacked and crushed Sukha Pala, ruler of Bhatinda.
- 1011 : Ghazni raided Nagarkot in the Punjab hills.
- 1013 : This was Mahmud’s 8th expedition into Pakistan and Eastern Afghanistan, the shahi kingdom under Anand Pala, who was defeated by Ghazni in the Battle of Waihind, the Hind shahi capital near Peshawar.
- 1014 : Thanesar was conquered by Mahmud.
- 1015 : Kashmir was attacked by Mahmud.
- 1018 : He attacked Mathura, where a number of coalition of rulers were defeated, including a ruler called Chandra Pala.
- 1021 : Mahmud conquered Kanauj by defeating Kanauj King Chandella Ganda. In the same year he defeated and killed two more rulers, Shahi Trilochana Pala and his son Bhima Pala, thereby conquering Rahib and Lahore (modern Pakistan).
- 1023 : Gwalior was invaded and conquered by Ghazni.
- Last invasion of Mahmud Ghazni, 1027 : In 1027, he attacked the Somnath temple. The brave Hindu Rajputs tried to defend the temple when the enemy tried to get inside it. The Hindus fought very bravely and initially the enemies could not damage the temple. However, after 3 days of fights, Mahmud Ghazni’s troops were successful in plundering the Somnath temple, in which the sacred idol, Linga was destroyed. Ghazni looted all the treasures of the temple, which was at that time worth 20-million Dinars, more than eighty times of what he had collected in his first invasion. Around 5000 Hindus died during this last invasion.
20. Rise to Power and Claiming the New Authority of ‘Sultan’
Mahmud of Ghazni was born in AD 971 in the town of Ghazni, Khorasan (which is today in the south-eastern part of Afghanistan). His father, Abu Mansur Sabuktegin, was a Mamluk warrior slave of Turkic origin, and the founder of the Ghaznavid Empire. In AD 977, Sabuktegin succeeded his father-in-law, Alptigin, as the governor of Ghazna. Like his predecessor, Sabuktegin recognised the nominal authority of the Samanid Empire over his domains. This, however, would change when his son Mahmud came to power.
- From Slave to Sultan: Baibars I – The Slave Warrior Who Fought His Way to the Top
- Hurrem Sultan, the Cheerful Rose of Suleiman I and a Powerful Woman of the Ottoman Empire
- The Imperial Harem of the Ottoman Empire: More than Just Beautiful Women