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Delhi Sultanate

 Delhi Sultanate

The defeat of Prithviraj Chauhan in the second battle of Tarain in 1192 by Shahabuddin Muhammad Ghori inaugurated an era of Muslim rule in India. The sudden death of Muhammad Ghori in 1206 and his failure to specify succession procedures pitted his three slaves Tajuddin Yalduz, Nasiruddin Qubacha and Qutbuddin Aibek against each other.

The period between 1206 and 1526 in the Indian history is known as the “Period of the Sultan Rulers” . During this period, rulers belonging to five different dynasties- The Slaves, the Khiljis, the Tughlaqs, the Sayyids and the Lodhis-ruled over India.

The Background of Delhi Sultanate

  • First Muslim Invasion-Mohammad Bin Qasim’s Invasion (712 AD) : Mohammad Bin Qasim invaded India in 712 AD and conquered Sindh which became the province of Omayyad Khilafat.
  • First Turk Invasion-Mahmud Ghaznavi’s Invasion (998-1030 AD) :Sultan Mahmud of Ghazni led about 17 expeditions to India to enrich himself by taking away the wealth from India. In 1025 he attacked and raided the most celebrated Hindu temple of Somnath that lies on the coast in the extreme south of Kathiwar. The temple was destroyed in 1026 AD.
  • Second Turk Invasion-Mohammad Ghori’s Invasion (1175-1206 AD) :Mohammad Ghori invaded India and laid the foundation of the Muslim domination in India. He may be considered the founder of muslim rule in India.
  • Reasons for the Sucess of Turks in India :
    1. Rajputs lacked unity and organisation;divided by rivalaries
    2. There was no central government
    3. Kingdoms were small and scattered
    4. Turks were better organised and took advantage of the lack of mutual cooperation among the Rajputs.

Dynasties of Delhi Sultanate

Dynasty Period of Rule Prominent rulers
Mamluk or Slave dynasty 1206 – 1290 Qutubuddin Aibak, Iltutmish, Razia Sultan, Ghiyasuddin Balban
Khilji dynasty 1290 – 1320 Alauddin Khilji
Tughlaq dynasty 1321 – 1413 Muhammad Bin Tughlaq, Firoz Shah Tughlaq
Sayyid dynasty 1414 – 1450 Khizr Khan
Lodhi dynasty 1451 – 1526 Ibrahim Lodhi

 

Important Rulers and Points to Remember

Ruler Points to remember
Qutubuddin Aibak
  • He was a slave of Mohammad Ghori.
  • He was the first Sultan of Delhi and founder of the Ghulam dynasty (Mamluk Sultanate) of India.
  • He ruled for only four years, from 1206 to 1210 AD. He died while playing polo in Lahore.
  • He built the Quwwat Al Islam mosque in Delhi and the Adhai-din-ka-Jhonpra mosque in Ajmer.
  • He started the construction of Qutb Minar in Delhi, which is dedicated to a famous Sufi Saint of the time, Qutubuddin Bakhtiar Kaki.
  • He is also remembered as lakhbaksh or giver of lakhs, because of his generosity.
Iltutmish
  • He was the first to issue regular currency and declare Delhi as the capital of his empire.
  • He introduced the silver tanka and the copper jital – the two basic coins of the Sultanate period, with a standard weight of 175 grains.
  • He introduced Iqtadari system: division of empire into Iqtas, which were assigned to the nobles and officers in lieu of salary.
  • He built the Hauz-i-Shamsi reservoir in Mehrauli in 1230.
  • He completed the Qutub Minar started by Qutubuddin Aibak.
  • Sultan Ghari which is considered the first Islamic Mausoleum in Delhi, was constructed by him in memory of his eldest son, Prince Nasiru’d-Din Mahmud.
  • Genghis Khan, the Mongolian invader appeared for the first time on the banks of river Indus, during his reign.
  • He was the longest serving Slave ruler who ruled for 25 years.
Razia Sultan
  • She was the first woman to sit on the throne of Delhi
  • She took over after the death of her father Iltutmish in 1236.

 

Delhi Sultanate QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS

1.Jalal-ud-din’s policy of ……….was not liked by the young Khiljis

ANSWER : peace

2.Poibos was a type of ……………..

ANSWER : salutation

3.The most successful ruler among the slave kings was ……..

ANSWER : Balban

4.The construction of Qutb Minar was started by ……….

ANSWER : Qutb-ud-din Aibak

5.The first Sultan to invade South India was ……………

ANSWER : Alauddin

6.The poet known as the “Parrot of India” was …….

ANSWER : Amir Khusrau

7.The founder of the Sayyid Dynasty was ………….

ANSWER : Khizr Khan

8.Babur the ruler of Kabul was invited by …………..to invade India.

ANSWER : Daulat Khan Lodi

9.The first Turkish ruler to introduce Arabic coinage was ………

ANSWER : Iltutmish

10. What does the term Mameluq signifies?

ANSWER :Slave born to the free parents

11. Who among the following ruler from the Ilbary dynasty died of injuries while playing Chaugan (Polo) at Lahore?

ANSWER :Qutub-ud-Din Aibak

12. Which of the following literary work primarily dealing with Aibak?

ANSWER :Tazul Masir of Hasan Nizam

13. Which ruler from the Delhi Sultanate saved Sultante from Changez Khan’s attack by refusing to give any shelter to Jalal-ud-din?

ANSWER :Shams-ud-Din Iltutumish

14. What do you mean by Turkan-i-Chahalgani?

ANSWER :Group of forty ruling elite

15. Who among the following known as the “slave of a slave”?

ANSWER :Ilitutmish

16. Which of following Sultan of Delhi Sultanate to issue regular currency and to declare Delhi as the capital of his empire?

ANSWER :IIitutmish

17. Which of the following is not correctly matched?

ANSWER :Hasan-un-Nizami – Iltutmish

18.Assertion (A): Iltutmish introduced reforms in civil administration and army which was now centrally paid.

Reason (R): Iltutmish was the first Sultan to recognise the economic importance of Gangetic basin

Codes:

ANSWER :Both A & R is true

19.  Who among the following Sultan of Delhi Sultanate adopted a policy of blood and iron?

ANSWER :Balban

20.Who was the first Muslim invade India ?

ANSWER :Muhammad bin Quasim

21.Who introduced the Silver Tankk & Jital two principal coins?

ANSWER :Shamsuddin Iltutmish

22.Who built the ‘Alai Darwaja’ and Siri Fort ?

ANSWER :Alauddin Khilji

23.Consider the following statements and mark the option which is true.
(i) Mohd. bin Tughlaq formulated the famine code to provide relief to famine affected people.
(ii) Firoz Shah Tughlaq made ‘Iqta System’ Hereditary.
(iii) Mohd. bin Tughlaq was on bad terms with the famous Sufi saint Nizamuddin Auliya.

ANSWER :i & iii

23.Which of the following rulers of Delhi Sultanate abolished the Iqtas ?

ANSWER :Alauddin Khilji

24.Which of the following sultans of Delhi Sultanate established a Famine Code to relieve the victims of Famine ?

ANSWER :Mohammad Tughlaq

25.Who was the first sultan to set up a permanent standing army of Delhi Sultanate ?

ANSWER :Alauddin Khilji

 

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